Best Stock Broker in India – Top 10 Discount Brokers in India 2020

Your ultimate partner in search for the Best Stock Brokers in India

In today’s fast-moving world, stock broking emerges out as the most preferred way of investing your money for quicker growth. Due to impressive returns, ease in investment, multiple investment options and easy liquidity, people have been rushing to put their money in stock markets. However, this is a bit technical process and the need for trading support emerges. This is where Top 10 Discount brokers in India come into play. The Best Stock brokers are largely referred as agents who are skilled and certified to invest in securities market. They typically act as agents for buyers and sellers of stocks and charge a free against the delivery of their services. Here, it is necessary to keep in mind that the Best stock broker in India does not own the securities but just offers the service for the investor. In India, there are primarily two types of stock brokers popular among traders and investors – Discount Broker and Full Service or Traditional Broker. Choosing between a full-service or discount broker is a big decision for investors. Should you go with the straightforward, affordable product, or choose the costlier, more service-centric experience?

Full Service or Traditional Broker

Traditional “full-service” brokers are known to do a lot more than just assist in the buying and selling of a stock or bond. These brokers to offer a wide range of services and products, including financial and retirement planning, investing and tax advice and typical portfolio updates.
As you get personalized commendations and service, traditional brokerages often come with higher fees, usually charging 1-2% on the assets managed.

Discount Broker in India

A discount or online brokerage could be a good choice for the cost-conscious investor who loves to go it alone. These brokerages will typically not offer investment advice, though it’s quite common for a discount brokerage to offer free best research broker in India and educational tools to help investors make sound investment decisions. Discount brokers in India come in all shapes and sizes. Some are known to feature better investing tools than others, but charge higher fees, while others might give only the basic brooking services, but charge the lowest fees. With discount brokers, you can either perform a trade on web automatically through a computerized trading system or call in your order with a broker over the phone.
Do remember that:
When it comes to choose a brokerage firm, be it’s a traditional firm or a discount broker, there is no one ideal choice for every investor. It majorly depends on one’s personal needs and penchants, comparing the costs against the benefits of each broker, and sensibly comparing the standard of services and features offered.

top 10 discount broker in india

List of Top 10 Discount Brokers in India

  1. Zerodha Broking Limited

Best stock Broker- zerodha

★★★★★

Zerodha comes as the pioneer of the discount broking segment. It is largely known for introducing the concept of discount broking in the year 2010. Since then, the discount broking firm has come a long way by attaining new levels of success. By bringing a first of its kind of brokerage model, Zerodha Stock broker India is considered among the fastest and the largest growing discount brokers in India.

Backed by sophisticated technology, great trading tools, and three-way trading platform, Zerodha always endeavors to give its clients a winning edge in stock trading.

The term ‘Zerodha’ refers to no Barrier Zero + Rodha (Barrier in English).  Zerodha is principally known as the largest discount broker and 3rd largest stock broker in India preceded by ICICI Direct and HDFC Securities. There are various reasons why Zerodha is a leader – low brokerage, great exposure and 100% web-based broker.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 4.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 9.5 / 10
Product & Services 8.5 / 10
Trading Platform 9.0 / 10
Broking Experience 5.7/ 10
Overall Rating 7.4/10
Customer Rating ★★★★★
  1. Upstox (RKSV)

Best stock Broker - Upstox

★★★★

Another big name in the field of discount broking is Upstox, the Best stock broker in India. Boasting of cutting-edge tools to free trade option and value-centric education, Upstox leads the way in the most impressive way.

The firm is backed by Kalaari Capital, GVK Davix and none other than Ratan Tata. Its in-house trading platform is developed by a team of engineers at Upstox’s head office in Mumbai. The firm allows its traders and investors to make the use of sophisticated charting and trading tools such as Upstox Pro Web.

There is free brokerage on equity delivery trading and trading in Equity, F&O, and Equity Intra Day. An investor can trader on Commodities and Currency Derivates at just Rs. 20 per order. It also offers NRI trading and option to invest in Mutual Funds.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 3.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 9.5 / 10
Product & Services 6.5 / 10
Trading Platform 6.5 / 10
Broking Experience 5.3/ 10
Overall Rating 6.2/10
Customer Rating ★★★★
  1. 5 Paisa

Best stock Broker - 5paisa

★★★★

Powered by IIFL, 5 Paisa is much like a full-service broker in a discounted avatar. It is not just any typical discount broker but offers a wide range of services including credit and finance, asset management, wealth management, financial product offerings, investment banking, stock and currency broking, Mutual Funds, IPOs, ETF, Bonds, insurance and advisory services.

Considering the super growth of the discount broking firm, that day is not far way when 5 Paisa would become the ‘best discount broker of India.’ In comparison of Zerodha, 5 Paisa started its journey in 2016 and currently it holds the 2nd position in terms of active subscribers.

It allows trading across Equity, F&O and Currency on NSE and BSE at a discount brokerage of Rs. 10 per executed order.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 4.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 9.8 / 10
Product & Services 6.0 / 10
Trading Platform 7.0 / 10
Broking Experience 4.0/ 10
Overall Rating 6.2/10
Customer Rating ★★★★
  1. Samco

Best stock Broker - samco

★★★

Samco Securities offers another impressive online discount brokerage service to investors and traders. Samco provides a wide range of products at a discount price with superb quality. One can trade Stocks, F&Os, Commodities and Currency in the Samco dashboard.

With Samco, one can trade on NSE, BSE, MSEI and MCX. Samco product suite offers Samco Trader for trading from desktop, Samco Mobile Trader for trading from iOS/Android platform, Samco Web as a web- based trading platform, Algorithmic trading for more frequent traders, Samco Star for back office management. Samco also enables call and trade but the call and trade facility that is charged separately alike other discount brokers.

In terms of brokerage charges, Samco is very much similar to other players in the domain. It is 0.02% or Rs. 20 per executed order, whichever is lower.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 3.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 8.5 / 10
Product & Services 6.0 / 10
Trading Platform 6.2 / 10
Broking Experience 5.5/ 10
Overall Rating 5.8/10
Customer Rating ★★★
  1. Wisdom Capital

Best stock Broker - wisdom capital

★★★★

Another new yet rapidly developing Best discount broker in India is Wisdom Capital. Wisdom Capital offers trading services for stocks, futures, options on NSE and BSE. It also supports commodity trading on MCX & NCDEX. Its amazingly easy to use automated online investing platform is quite popular among investors. The Best discount broker in India initially offers three brokerage plans:

  • Freedom Plan: Trading across all segments (BSE, NSE & MCX) at 0 brokerage. This enables extremely little margin/exposure.
  • Pro Plan: Known for professional traders, this plan charges brokerage in NSE equities 0.005% intraday and delivery. Brokerage in NSE futures, options and MCX is Rs.9 per trade.
  • Ultimate Plan: Most suited to high frequency traders searching for the best margin/exposure. Brokerage in NSE equities is 0.007% Intraday & delivery. The brokerage is 0.005% NSE futures, currency & commodity trading at MCX and Rs.15/lot in options.
Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 3.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 8.4 / 10
Product & Services 5.8 / 10
Trading Platform 6.3 / 10
Broking Experience 5.7/ 10
Overall Rating 5.8/10
Customer Rating ★★★★
  1. SASOnline

Best stock Broker - sas online

★★★★★

SAS online is another renowned player in the field of discount brokerage. Setup by 2 young entrepreneurs, SAS Online endeavors to become the real discount broker and breaks the barrier of trading by offering lowest brokerage services. It allows trading across Equity, Commodity(MCX) and Currencies. The trading platform gives the options of desktop, mobile and web versions to investors and traders.

SAS Online delivers one of the most inexpensive brokerages with the charge of just Rs.9 per trade across all the segments. But, if you are a high frequency trader, you can choose to buy lump-sum plans or Rs.499 or Rs.999 per month wherein you can do unlimited number of trades as you would like without being charged any additional fees.

SAS stands for South Asian Stocks Limited. It promises competitive brokerage charges, exceptional customer services, and smoother trading procedure.

 

Customer Ratings
Experience 3.4/5
Product & Services 3.1/5
Brokerage Charges &  Fees 3.3/5
Stock Research & Advisory 3.0/5
Trading Platforms 3.2/5
Overall Ratings 3.2/5
Star Ratings ★★★☆☆

 

  1. Trade Smart Online

The Best stock Broker - tradesmartonline ★★★★★

Trade Smart Online is a leading discount broking firm sponsored by VNC Finance & Capital Services Ltd, one of the traditional brokers in the country operating since 1994. The broker has secured a special place in the eyes of investors and traders by offering multiple brokerage plans, zero cost trading tools and improved margin.

The firm offers a whole bunch of trading services including Equity and Derivatives in NSE & BSE, Currency Derivatives and Commodities in MCX and NCDEX.

TSO Brokerage Plans

  • Value Trading Plan: Brokerage for Intraday Cash, Futures, Currency, Commodities is 0.007% and delivery is 0.07% For Options Rs. 7 per lot. Suitable for low volume traders.
  • Power Trading Plan: Rs.15 per trade irrespective of executed trade. Suitable to traders with less frequency but big volume.
Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 3.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 9.5 / 10
Product & Services 4.0 / 10
Trading Platform 4.0 / 10
Broking Experience 4.0 / 10
Overall Rating 4.9/10
Customer Rating ★★★★★
  1. Prostocks

The Best stock Broker - prostock

★★★★★

Prostocks is a rapidly evolving one of the Top 10 discount brokerage firm in India. The founders are very much experienced in the brokerage industry and poised to offer unparalleled stock broking service. One can trade Equity (Delivery, intraday, F&O) and currencies on the Prostocks platform. The platform offers desktop trading tool, a mobile trading application and Prostocks web trading application.

Prostocks takes a flat charge of Rs.15 per order. It offers monthly and yearly packages as well for unlimited trading but they are primarily suited for high frequency traders who have been conducting several trades in a month.

The most selling point of Prostock is its lowest brokerage. Apart from this, their stamp duty is also the lowest. They have primarily 3 plans – Rs. 15 flat fee plan, Rs. 899 monthly plan for equity cash and derivatives, Rs 499 monthly plan for currency derivative, Rs 8999 yearly plan for equity cash and derivative segment, Rs 4999 yearly plan for currency derivative segment.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 3.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 9.0 / 10
Product & Services 5.8 / 10
Trading Platform 6.0 / 10
Broking Experience 5.7/ 10
Overall Rating 5.9/10
Customer Rating ★★★★★
  1. Trading Bells

Best stock Broker in India - tradingbells

★★★★★

Tradingbells is widely regarded as a new age discount broking firm. One can choose to trade across Equity (Delivery, intraday, F&O), currencies and commodities on the platform. The platform offers desktop trading tool, a mobile trading application and a web-based trading application. The platform features 15-minute account opening if you have an Aadhar card.

There is Online Zero Brokerage on all delivery trades, Rs. 20- or 0.01% whichever is lower per executed order for all intraday and F&O trading. Seamless pricing across equity, currencies and commodities and Brokerage calculator to comprehend all your charges.

Equity Delivery: 0 Brokerage

Equity Intraday or Futures: 0.01% or Rs.20 whichever is lower

Equity Options: Rs.20 Flat

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 3.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 8.5 / 10
Product & Services 6.4 / 10
Trading Platform 6.1 / 10
Broking Experience 6.5/ 10
Overall Rating 6.1/10
Customer Rating ★★★★★
  1. Finvasia

Best stock Broker in India - Finvasia

★★★★★

Setup in 2016, Finvasia is a discount broking firm which offers trading and investing at Totally Zero Pricing. The firm started its journey as a Foreign Institutional Investor (FII now FPI) and advisory services provider offering a wide range of services including asset management, investment banking, capital market advisory, currency hedging and now initiated broking services in equity, derivative, currency and commodity segments projected at retail and institutional clients and also mutual fund investment, IPOs, bonds etc. As the discount brokerage firm offers a wide range of services, their client base includes Corporate, Hedge Funds, Asset Management Companies, High Net Worth Individuals, Non-Resident Indians (NRIs), Foreign Institutional Investors and Retail Customers. The broker offers zero brokerage trading plans across all segments on NSE, BSE and MCX. However, they feature charges for few software usages. The broker is registered with CDSL. There is no demat account opening charges and AMC associated with DP Account.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 3.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 9.0/ 10
Product & Services 5.8 / 10
Trading Platform 6.0 / 10
Broking Experience 5.7/ 10
Overall Rating 5.9/10
Customer Rating ★★★★★

List of Top 10 Full Service Brokers in India

  1. Angel Broking

Angel-broking

★★★★★

Angel Broking is one of the top-rated full-service brokerage houses in India and has been operating since 1987. It boasts of modern and user-centric trading platforms along with expert advisory service to its customers.

The Angel Group is a official member of the Bombay Stock Exchange, National Stock Exchange and two commodity exchanges- the NCDEX and MCX. It is also registered as a Depository participant with CDSL.

 

Customer Ratings
Experience 9.0 / 10
Trading Platform 8.6 / 10
Product & Services 8.8 / 10
Brokerage Charges 9.5 / 10
Research 8.5 / 10
Overall Rating 8.88 / 10
Star Rating ★★★★★
Customer Reviews 3486
  1. ShareKhan

sharekhan

★★★★

Sharekhan is one of the biggest full-service broking houses based out of Mumbai, India with more than 1.4 million clients.

Initially a part of SSKI Group, ShareKhan was recently acquired by BNP Paribas Group. It has branches & franchises in over 550 cities across India. They deliver quality brokerage services through their web-based trading website sharekhan.com and over 1800 offices. The brand also enjoys international presence in the Oman and UAE countries.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 7.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 6.5/ 10
Product & Services 7.0 / 10
Trading Platform 7.5 / 10
Broking Experience 7.5/ 10
Overall Rating 7.1/10
Customer Rating ★★★★
  1. Kotak Securities

★★★★

Kotak Securities Limited was discovered in 1994 & presently measured as one of the biggest stock broking houses in India with headquarters in Mumbai. Kotak Securities is a full-service broker with a great customer base ranging from 1-1.2 million.

Kotak Securities is a well reputed member of Bombay Stock Exchange & National Stock Exchange managing over 5 lakh trades on a regular basis. They are also a depository participant with National Securities Depository Limited (NDSL) and Central Depository Services Limited (CDSL).

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 9.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 6.5/ 10
Product & Services 8.6 / 10
Trading Platform 8.9 / 10
Broking Experience 7.0/ 10
Overall Rating 8.0/10
Customer Rating ★★★★
  1. ICICI Direct

ICICI Direct

★★★

It is basically a retail trading company that deals into investment part of ICICI Securities. Being a subsidiary of the ICICI Bank, it offers a range of many financial trading-based services to their respective traders and investors throughout the country.

ICICI Direct is the 2nd largest retail stock broker in India that offers a wide range of investment to the retail and institutional customers.Their website offers a great bunch of investment products such as Mutual Fund & IPO, Online Equity Trading, Fixed Deposit, Bond, Derivatives Trading, NCD, wealth products, Home Loans, etc.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 6.2 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 6.0/ 10
Product & Services 6. 3/ 10
Trading Platform 6. 1/ 10
Broking Experience 6.0/ 10
Overall Rating 6.1/10
Customer Rating ★★★★★
  1. HDFC Securities

★★★★

Controlled by HDFC Bank, HDFC Securities is basically an equity trading business. It offers both online trading and trading through phone.

HDFC Securities provides also boasts of features such as Day trading on both NSE and BSE, Cash-n-Carry on both NSE and BSE, Trade on Futures or Options on NSE and the online IPO Investments.

HDFC Securities ensures unprecedented level of safety and security to their customers such as 128-bit encryption technology.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 6.2 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 5.0/ 10
Product & Services 8.0 / 10
Trading Platform 7.0 / 10
Broking Experience 8.0/ 10
Overall Rating 6.8/10
Customer Rating ★★★★
  1. Motilal Oswal

Motilal-Oswal

★★★★

Based out of Mumbai, Motilal Oswal Securities Ltd. was incorporated in 1987 and is considered as a remarkable player in the field of financial services providers providing services across Institutional Broking, Private Wealth Management, Retail Broking and Distribution, Investment Banking & more. Motilal Oswal is a financial services firm with a range of products and services such as Retail Broking and Distribution, Private Wealth Management, Institutional Broking, Asset Management, Private Equity, Commodity Brokering, Investment Banking, Currency Broking and Home Finance.The Full-Service brokers’ client includes foreign institutional investors, retail customers, mutual funds, financial and corporate clients.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 6.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 7.50/ 10
Product & Services 7.50 / 10
Trading Platform 7.0 / 10
Broking Experience 8.0/ 10
Overall Rating 7.20/10
Customer Rating ★★★★
  1. Edelweiss

edelweiss

★★★★

Being a member of NSE, BSE, MCX-SX and MSEI, Edelweiss Broking Ltd is a part of the Edelweiss Group, a leading financial service firm. It offers a range of products to its clients across institutional, retail and corporations.

It was started in 1995. Since then they have emerged out as a company worth INR 32,000 Crore with more than 6000 employees working in various divisions. In their journey spanning 2 decades, they have also acquired some major businesses like Anagram Capital, Forefront & recently JP Morgan AMC (India).

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 8.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 6.5/ 10
Product & Services 7.5 / 10
Trading Platform 7.5 / 10
Broking Experience 7.0/ 10
Overall Rating 7.3/10
Customer Rating ★★★★
  1. Karvy

karvy

★★★

Karvyisa well-known full-service brokerage firm which is based out of Hyderabad and a part of country’s leading business group – Karvy Group.

Measures among the top 5 full-service brokers in the country, the firm has over 70 million customers along with 600+ corporate houses. Karvy Stock Broking Limited (KSBL) is one subsidiary of the group engaged in broking business is. It looks after the retail as well as institutional investors. It has been awarded BSE order of Merit award and SKOCH – BSE Inspiring Nation award.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 6.7 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 7.0/ 10
Product & Services 6.5 / 10
Trading Platform 6.5 / 10
Broking Experience 6.0/ 10
Overall Rating 6.5/10
Customer Rating ★★★
  1. SBI Cap Securities

SBI Cap Securities

★★★

SBI, one of nation’s largest most preferred bank, has extended its service offerings and set up a brokerage house with the name of SBI Securities.

The brokerage firm offers an extensive range of products and services for both investors as well as traders. It caters to individuals, corporate/institutions and even NRIs. Even they have set up ha a dedicated help desk for dealing with NRI related queries and concerns.

SBI Securities is one of the major service broker names that don’t give any offer to their client.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 5.0 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 5.0/ 10
Product & Services 5.4 / 10
Trading Platform 6.0 / 10
Broking Experience 6.0/ 10
Overall Rating 5.4/10
Customer Rating ★★★
  1. Axis Direct

Axis Direct

★★★★

Axis Direct is among the few Full services brokers in India with 3-in-1 account. Axis Securities Limited is a basically a subsidiary of the renowned Axis Bank. The broking firm has membership of NSE, BSE, MCX-SX, and Depository Participant with CDSL. The main stream business of the broker is to allow investment in Equities, MF, SIPs, IPOs, Derivatives, Bonds, NCDs, Exchange Traded Funds and Company Fixed Deposits.

Axis Direct boasts of a feature of 3-in-1 account, which includes Axis Bank Savings Account, Axis Securities Trading Account and Axis Direct Demat Account.

Customer Ratings
Criteria Ratings
Research & Advisory 6.3 / 10
Brokerage Charges & Fees 6.2/ 10
Product & Services 6.5 / 10
Trading Platform 6.3 / 10
Broking Experience 6.2/ 10
Overall Rating 6.3/10
Customer Rating ★★★★

 

Active Clients

 

Customer Ratings
Brokerage No. of Clients
Zerodha 847016
ICICI Direct 844853
HDFC Securities 674495
Sharekhan 548873
Axis Direct 416707
Angel Broking 415572
Kotak Securities 409619
Motilal Oswal 328145
Karvy 270521
IIF Securities 232344
SBI CAP Securities 210073
GEO JIT Services 173731
Edelweiss Broking 163808
Religare Broking 122029
Reliance Securities 116880
SMC Global Securities 110015
Nirmal Bang Securities pvt 98337
Marwadi Shares and Finance 92268
5Paisa Capital 89996
Ventura Securities 81693

Both discount brokers and full-service brokers have their own pros and cons and we details the list of registered stock brokers in India and it’s all up to one’s personal preferences and trading needs that decide which option is best. If you’re new to investing and don’t want to pay high brokerage, discount brokers are certainly a great way forward. However, if you need advice on stocks and you’re a high frequency trader, it is better to consider a full-service broker. Taking a detailed look at the advantages and disadvantages of both the broker types could be a feasible way to end up making the right decision.

Factors to consider while choosing Best stock brokers in India

To make it easy for you to choose the right stock broker, here are some of the most prominent factors that must be kept in mind while browsing through a wide range of Best stock brokers in India operating in the market

  1. Broker’s History

Before choosing a Best stock broker in India, it is necessary to carry out a detailed background check on the brokerage firm. One of the most preferred ways to do it is to browse through the websites of the brokers and go through client testimonials and reviews. It is essential to find out everything details about the brokers like for how many years he is into the industry? What is the reputation of the broker? Charges and facilities provided by stockbrokers and lots more. Researching every small detail will make sure that you have chosen a right broker because he will be managing your portfolio.

  1. Commission Cost

This is another most crucial factor in selecting the best stockbroker in India. The brokers you pick, charge a certain percentage of the brokerage fees or commission cost to run the trades. It is necessary to note that the commission of a broker makes an impact on the return you get. If the commission of a stockbroker is on the higher side, then it may affect your financial budget as you would have to pay a higher fee each time you execute a trade. In such a case, it makes a great sense to check out and compare the commission cost of different brokers before opening an account.

  1. Trading Platform

To carry out stock trading online, a trading platform or software is facilitated by the Best stock brokers in India. It refers to the platform you are using must be user-friendly and stable. When you are choosing a broker, then it is necessary that you must guarantee that the platform you are getting must have all the necessary features like does it enables the charts or analysis on time? Do you receive share price alerts or notifications? Does it have everything that you really need or it is a total waste? It is highly prudent that you must first get a demo of the platform from the broker to get the much-needed support to operate the software easily.

  1. Customer Support

With the large number of the stockbrokers available nowadays, a broker providing an exemplary customer support service definitely has an upper hand over the others. Customers typically choose brokers, who are rapid to respond to their questions. A bad customer satisfaction may irritate them, and they may search for other options. A customer service can be on e-mail or phone based. Hence, make sure that the broker you are choosing is readily available provide you utmost satisfaction.

  1. Trading tools and education

One important factor to keep in mind when choosing online discount broker in India is educational materials and trading tools provided by the broker. A majority of reputable online brokers generally provide educational materials including videos, article, webinars, e-courses, and seminars at no extra cost. However, the quality of these materials generally differs depending on the broker that you pick. It is therefore very much necessary to pick a trader who provides quality trading tools and educational materials to its clients.

  1. Regulation

Regulation is an extremely important factor that many investors generally oversee when picking an online forex broker. Proper regulation helps to ensure that the forex broker is well exploited in the unforeseen event of a trading loss. It also ensures that the broker upholds standard practices as well as keep your money and data safe. To be on a safer side, it is advisable that you choose a right stock broker in India who has a clean regulatory record.

Snippet not selected.